1、We have all encountered them, in both our personal and professional livesThink about the times you felt tricked or frustrated by a membership oribscription that had a seamles sign-up process but was later dificult to cancel.
2、Something that should be simple and transparent can be complicated, intentionallyor umintentionally. in ways that impair consumer choice. hese are examp-k .patterns.First coined in2010 by user experience expert Harry Brigmull, dark.patterns" is a cach-ll term for practices that manipulate user interfaces to infuence thedecision making ability of users.
3、Brignull identifis 12 types of common darkatterms. ranging from misdirection and hidden costs to roach motel. " where aIser experience seems easy and intuitive at the start, but tums difficult when theuser tries to get outIn a 2019 study of 53,000 product pages and 11, 000 websites, researchersfound that about one in 10 employs these design practices. Though widely prevalent, the concept of dark ptterns is still not well understood. Business andnonprofit leaders should be aware of dark patterns and try to avoid the gray areasthey engender Where is the line between ethical, persuasive design and dark patterms?Businesses should engage .
1、Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET (10 points)
2、Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. ___1___, a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions of such a society have been ___2___ for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment “would soon revolutionize the very ___3___ of money itself,” only to ___4___ itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so ___5___ in coming?
3、Although e-money might be more convenient and may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work __6___ the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very ___7___ to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the ___8___ form of payment. Second, paper checks have the advantage that they ___9___ receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to ___10___. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float"-it takes several days ___11___ a check is cashed and funds are ___12___ from the issuer's account, which means that the writer of the check can earn interest on the funds in the meantime. ___13___ electronic payments are immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment ___14___ security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information ___15___ there.
4、Because this is not an ___16___ occurrence, unscrupulous persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and ___17___ funds by moving them from someone else’s accounts into their own. The ___18___ of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a whole new field of computer science has developed to ___19___ security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic ___20___ that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits. There are worries that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby encroaching on our privacy.